Treat common banana tree diseases

How To Treat Banana Tree Diseases?

Banana trees are a popular and nutritious fruit that is grown all over the world. However, like all plants, they are susceptible to diseases caused by a variety of factors such as insect pests, fungi, and nematodes. In this article, we will discuss some of the most common banana tree diseases and how to identify and treat them using integrated pest management techniques. Whether you are a farmer or a home gardener, this article will provide valuable information on protecting your banana trees from diseases and ensuring a healthy harvest.

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Overview of Banana Plant:

The banana plant is a large, flowering herb that grows from a structure called a “corm.” It is known for its fast growth and can grow up to 1.6 square meters per day. The leaves of a banana plant are made up of a stalk and blade, and the base of the stalk widens to form a sheath. The plant produces a single flower spike, or “banana heart,” which contains many bracts and rows of flowers. The female flowers, which can develop into fruit, are located further up the stem than the male flowers. The banana fruit grows in a large hanging cluster made up of tiers of up to 20 fruit each. The fruit is made up of a peel, strings, and an inner portion. In cultivated varieties, the seeds are small and nearly non-existent. The end of the fruit opposite the stem contains a small tip that is the remnants.

Now, let’s get back to our main discussion i.e. 5 common banana tree diseases, symptoms, and how to treat them…

1. Banana Rot Disease. (Fig-1)

black spots on the Banana it is Rot Disease symptoms.


One of the most significant issues that can occur after harvest in bananas is known as rot. This disease leads to discoloration and deterioration of the fruit’s tissue, and it originates at the point where the hand of bananas is separated from the stem. Specifically, it begins at or close to the crescent-shaped crown.


This disease is caused by a fungus called Colletotrichum musae.

What Are The Symptoms? 

    • Initially small light brown to black spots appears on the banana.
    • Spots are pressed. Eventually, the small spots merge into larger ones. As a result, the lifespan of the banana is reduced.

How To Treat Rot Disease of Banana?

    • After the collection of the banana bunch. 520C From 540C Soaking bananas in hot water for 5 minutes can suppress post-harvest rot disease and increase shelf life.
    • Soaking banana bunch in a 5% solution of detergent for 3 minutes prevents banana rot and increases shelf life.

2. Bunch Top Virus of Banana. (fig-2)

Bunch Top Virus symptoms on Banana tree head.

Bunch Head Disease of banana. (fig-2)

This Virus poses the greatest threat to banana plants and can result in significant yield loss in affected regions. If appropriate countermeasures are not taken, the damage can be as high as 100%. The virus is transmitted between banana plants by the banana aphid (Pentalonia nigronervosa) and can also travel over long distances through the movement of infected plant material.


 It’s a Viral disease. The disease is transmitted by the insect that carries the virus (Thrips).

What Are The Symptoms of Bunch Top Virus in Bananas?

    • Due to this disease, the growth of the banana plant is reduced and the leaf comes out in bunches.
    • The leaf is short in shape and erects at the top.
    • The edges of the young leaf are curved upwards and yellow in color.
    • Dip-green spots appear between the veins of the leaf.

How To Treat Bunch Top Virus Disease in Bananas?

    • Uproot affected plants and burn or bury them underground.
    • Planting healthy seedlings.
    • Use of resistant varieties.
    • Approved insecticides (Such as Imidacloprid) mixed with 1 ml per liter of water can be sprayed twice every 7 days to control virus vectors (jabs and thrips).

3. Panama Disease of Banana. (Fig-3)

Panama disease symptoms on banana tree leaves

Panama disease of banana. (Fig-3)

Panama disease is a fungal disease that affects banana trees and can cause significant losses in production. It was first identified in Southeast Asia and has since spread to most banana-producing regions of the world. It is particularly damaging to the ‘Gros Michel’ cultivar, which was widely used in export trade before the disease spread. In the mid-20th century, the ‘Cavendish’ subgroup of cultivars was introduced as a substitute, but it has also become vulnerable to the disease, known as TR4. There are currently no acceptable replacement cultivars and efforts to control the disease include disease surveillance, integrated pest management, breeding of resistant cultivars, and genetic engineering. The disease also affects plantains, which are a staple food in tropical regions.

Cause of Disease:

This disease is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubensis.

What Are The Symptoms of Panama Disease in Bananas? 

    • In this disease, first, the edges of the older leaf turn yellow, and later the young leaves turn yellow.
    • Subsequently, the leaf bud closes and droops down and the plant dies.
    • Sometimes trees split vertically. Internal symptoms Vascular bundles are yellow to brown in color.
    • Plants lose yield and die.

How To Treat Panama Disease in Bananas?

    • Uproot and burn affected trees.
    • Planting seedlings from disease-free trees.
    • Do not collect seedlings from infected orchards.
    • Pits before transplanting: soaked with 1% formalin + 50% water and transplanted after 10-12 days.
    • Using disease-free seedlings.
    • Sequencing the grain phase.
    • Apply 5 kg semi-rotted chicken crap and 1 kg Tricho-compost per pit.
    • Mancozeb 2 gm/liter and Carbofuran 12 kg/ Acre were applied at the base of banana seedlings.

4. Sigatoka Disease of Banana (Fig-4)

Small yellow spots and brown color banana tree leaves it is Sigatoka Disease symptoms.

Sigatoka Disease of Banana (Fig-4)

The leaf-spot disease known as Sigatoka affects banana plants and is prevalent in many nations globally. Commonly referred to as black leaf streak, it was first identified in 1963. The disease shares similarities with yellow Sigatoka, which is caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella musicola (Mulder), and is named after the Sigatoka Valley in Fiji where a massive outbreak occurred from 1912 to 1923. This disease can cause a significant decrease in fruit yield, with affected plants experiencing up to a 50% reduction in production.

Cause of Disease:

This disease is caused by a fungus called Cercospora musce or Mycospderella musicola.

What Are The Symptoms of Sigatoka Disease in Bananas?

    • In the attack of this disease, small yellow spots appear primarily on the 3rd or 4th leaf. Gradually the spots enlarge and take on a brown color.
    • Thus multiple spots combine to form large spots and result in leaf burn.
    • First small yellow elongated or black round spots appear on the lower leaves of the plant. The scar becomes larger and the cells in the middle become dry.
    • Heavily affected leaves appear charred.
    • Bananas of diseased plants are reduced in size. Disease incidence increases when the soil is low in oxygen and available phosphate and high in soil acidity.

How To Treat Sigatoka Disease in Bananas?

    • The infected leaf should be burnt.
    • Spray every 15 days by mixing 0.5 ml propiconazole fungicide in every liter of water.
    • Cut and burn a diseased leaf or parts of the leaf.
    • Burn all the leaves after harvesting. This is very important for banana tree diseases to treat.
    • Keeping a good water drainage system on the land.
    • Provide adequate light and air by planting trees at the proper distance.
    • If the disease occurs, spray every 15 days by mixing 0.5 ml of propiconazole or 2 carbendazim fungicides per liter of water. 

5. Cucumber Mosaic Virus of Banana. (Fig-5)

Cucumber Mosaic Virus symptoms on Banana leaves.

Banana leaves. (Fig-5)


Cucumber mosaic virus is a type of plant virus belonging to the Bromoviridae family that is primarily spread by aphids. It is one of the most economically damaging plant viruses globally. This virus also infects banana plants and can result in substantial losses.

Cause of Disease:

 It’s a Viral disease. The disease is transmitted by the insect that carries the virus ( Thrips).

What Are The Symptoms?

    • The tree can become infected at any stage of growth and the infection is mainly visible on its leaves.
    • At first, the leaves may display mosaic patterns that resemble continuous or interrupted streaks along the veins. Over time, the leaves may develop a striped appearance, and the leaf lamina may not fully develop.
    • The leaf margins may also become irregularly curved and show necrotic spots.
    • Young leaves may be smaller than usual. The leaf sheaths, pseudostems, and bulbs may also show signs of rotting.
    • On older leaves, necrosis may appear as black or purple lines that drop off. Infected plants are unable to mature and may not produce bunches of fruit.

How To Treat Cucumber Mosaic Virus in Bananas?

    1. Infected trees should be uprooted, burned, or burned on the ground as soon as they are seen.
    2. Suppressing garden weeds.
    3. Approved insecticides (Such as Imidacloprid) mixed with 1 ml per liter of water can be sprayed twice every 7 days to control virus vectors (jabs and thrips).
    4. Seedlings should not be harvested from affected orchards.
    5. Planting slow simple seedlings.
    6. Use resistant varieties.


These Common diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, but the best way to combat them is by keeping your banana tree healthy. A healthy plant will be able to fight off diseases more easily than a sick one. Avoid over-watering or drying out your banana tree, keep it in an area with plenty of light, and maintain good air circulation for healthier plants. If you suspect that your banana tree is affected by diseases, check out the information above on how to identify them and how to treat them.

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