Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
We have collected a short list of the most popular frequently asked questions, which are commonly asked by our readers.
1. What is Agriculture Methods/Technology?
The application of scientific knowledge, techniques, and equipment to increase the productivity of agricultural crops or productivity in a relatively short time, at a low cost, in an unfavorable environment is called agriculture methods/technology. Agriculture and agricultural technology complement each other. Basically, the process by which agriculture is done in agricultural technology.
2. What is agriculture?
Agriculture is the practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was key to the development of the rise of sedentary human civilizations, whereby the cultivation of domesticated species produced food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities. The history of agriculture dates back thousands of years. After wild crops began to be collected at least 105,000 years ago, emerging farmers began their plantings about 11,500 years ago.
3. What does pollination mean? What is its importance?
Pollination is a sexual reproduction process in plants. The transfer of pollen molecules from the female stamen of the flower to the male stamen of the flower using any medium (air, water, insects, animals) in this process is called pollination.
Pollination is basically 2 types:
When the pollen of a flower pollinates the same flower or another flower it is called self-pollination. Meaning it occurs within the same flower or between two flowers of the same plant.
Importance of Pollination:
- Since no other controller or carrier is needed, the chances of pollination are pretty much guaranteed.
- In most cases, multiple flowers are not required as the flowers are bisexual.
- Self-pollination maintains species purity.
- Self-pollination gives the mother plant strength to survive in the same environment as the traits of the mother plant are passed on to the offspring.
- Because genetic variation is not easily achieved, pure plants actually persist for long periods of time, allowing us to learn about plant diversity.
- Fruits and seeds with certain characteristics are available which are very important in agriculture.
4. What is Plant Pathology?
Plant pathology is the scientific study of diseases caused by pathogens (infecting organisms) and environmental conditions (physiological factors). Infectious disease-causing organisms include fungi, oomycetes, bacteria, viruses, viroids, virus-like organisms, phytoplasmas, protozoa, nematodes, and parasitic plants. This does not include ectoparasites, such as insects, mites, wasps, or other pests, which affect plant health by eating plant tissue. Plant pathology involves the study of pathogen identification, disease causation, disease cycles, economic impact, plant disease epidemiology, plant disease prevention, how plant diseases affect humans and animals, pathosystem genetics, and plant disease management.
5. What is Compost Fertilizer?
Compost is a black, crumbly, soil-like substance that is produced organically from plant and animal waste by various microorganisms. In addition to nitrogen and carbon, the benefits of this fertilizer with various nutrients are unmatched for fruit, flower, or vegetable plants.
6. What is organic fertilizer?
Organic fertilizers are a type of carbon-rich fertilizer that occurs naturally. Fertilizers are substances that are applied to provide nutrients to soil and plants and maintain growth. Organic fertilizers include mineral sources, all animal droppings, liquid compost, guano, and plant-based fertilizers such as compost, and biosolids. There are also other inorganic and non-chemical fertilizers that adhere to the principles of organic farming, which can be used in commercial organic farming.
Organic fertilizers are fertilizers obtained from the body of an organism, i.e. plant or animal waste. For example dung manure, green manure, Khail, etc. Almost all plant nutrients are organic fertilizers.
7. What are the diseases caused by the lack of phosphorus in the plant body?
In the absence of phosphorus, the plants show the following symptoms:
- If it is deficient, the leaves take on a purple color.
- Dead zones are formed on the leaves.
- Root growth is reduced.
- Leaves, flowers, and fruits may drop.
Phosphorus is essential for all plant growth and metabolism including seed germination, photosynthesis, and protein synthesis. It is also essential for flowering and fruiting. At pH levels below 4, phosphate is chemically bound to soil organic matter. Phosphorus deficiency causes bluish-red coloration of stems and leaves, stunting, and reduced growth rate. The number of flowers and fruits decreases. Fruits and flowers drop quickly. Phosphorus should be applied close to the plant roots so that the plant can use it.
8. What is sustainable agriculture?
Sustainable agriculture is a type of farming that aims to produce crops and raise animals in a way that is environmentally friendly, economically viable, and socially responsible. It seeks to minimize negative impacts on the environment, such as soil erosion, water pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions, while maximizing the use of natural resources, such as sunlight, water, and biological diversity. Sustainable agriculture also seeks to preserve and enhance the health and well-being of animals and the local community, by promoting the use of humane practices and supporting small-scale, diversified farming operations.
To achieve these goals, sustainable agriculture employs a variety of strategies and techniques, such as:
- Crop rotation: Planting different crops in a particular area each year, to restore nutrients to the soil and reduce the risk of pests and diseases.
- Cover cropping: Planting cover crops (such as legumes or grasses) between main crops to improve soil structure, suppress weeds, and reduce erosion.
- Integrated pest management: Using a combination of natural pest control methods (such as releasing predatory insects) and selective chemical pesticides, to minimize pest damage and reduce negative impacts on the environment.
- Water conservation: Using efficient irrigation techniques and capturing rainwater to reduce water use and prevent soil erosion.
- Animal welfare: Providing animals with good living conditions, including space to roam and access to natural light, and using humane methods of slaughter.
Overall, sustainable agriculture seeks to balance the needs of the environment, the economy, and society, in order to create a sustainable and resilient food system.
9. What are modern agricultural techniques?
Modern agricultural techniques are methods and technologies used in contemporary farming practices, which aim to increase productivity, efficiency, and profitability. These techniques can vary depending on the type of crops or animals being raised, the local climate and soil conditions, and the resources and infrastructure available to farmers. Some examples of modern agricultural techniques include:
- Precision agriculture: Using GPS and other digital technologies to precisely map and monitor crops, soil conditions, and weather patterns, and to optimize inputs such as fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation.
- Irrigation: Using artificial systems to provide water to crops, including drip irrigation (where water is delivered directly to the roots of plants through a network of tubes), sprinkler irrigation (where water is sprayed over the surface of the soil), and center pivot irrigation (where a large circular sprinkler system rotates around a central point).
- Genetic modification: Using biotechnology to modify the genetic makeup of crops or animals in order to improve their characteristics or performance, such as increasing resistance to pests or diseases, or improving the nutritional content.
- Mechanization: Using machines to perform tasks that were previously done by hand, such as planting, cultivating, and harvesting crops, or feeding and caring for animals
- Fertilization: Applying chemical fertilizers or organic matter to the soil to provide nutrients to plants and improve soil structure.
While these techniques can help to increase the efficiency and productivity of agriculture, they can also have negative impacts on the environment and local communities, such as soil degradation, water pollution, and negative impacts on biodiversity. As a result, many farmers are adopting more sustainable agricultural practices in order to balance the need for increased food production with the need to protect the environment and support local communities.
10. What is Tissue Culture?
Generally, a group of cells of one or more types is called a tissue. Tissue culture is the process of growing tissue in a sterile nutrient medium. Tissue culture is a new branch of botany. In plant tissue culture, isolated plant parts or organs (such as pollen, apical or lateral buds, segments, roots, etc.) are cultured under sterile conditions in a specific nutrient medium. The medium is supplied with nutrients and all the elements necessary for growth. The part of the plant that is separated and used for tissue culture is called ‘Explant’.
11. Where is the Use of tissue culture?
Using the techniques of tissue culture technology, there has been a great success in plant breeding and the development of improved varieties these days and there is immense potential in these fields. Through this, many seedlings with the same characteristics can be created from plant parts in a short period of time. Disease-free, especially virus-free seedlings can be produced. Seasonal seedling production constraints are freed. The problem of seedling stockpiling is avoided because of the facility of producing a large number of seedlings in a short period of time.
Plants that do not reproduce by seed can be propagated by seedlings and transplanted at a low cost. Tissue culture is recognized as a reliable technology for the production and conservation of endangered plants. Embryos that do not have a cotyledon can be cultured directly to produce plants. Plants that are sexually absent or have a low rate of natural reproduction can be arranged for rapid multiplication. Tissue culture technology is being used to develop new species of plants. French scientist George Morel (1964) proved that it is possible to get about 40 thousand seedlings in a year from a single meristem of Cymbidium orchid species.
Note that, as a general rule, a Cymbidium plant produces only a few seedlings per year. Thailand produces 50 million seedlings a year through tissue culture, most of which are orchids. Countries such as Thailand, Singapore, and Malaysia earn billions of rupees every year by exporting these flowers. In 1952, a scientist named Martin developed disease-free dahlia and potato plants through meristem culture. At present, decontamination of virus-infected flowers and fruit plants (such as potato tubers) by meristem culture has become a routine program in tissue culture. Propagation of oil palm in Malaysia is done by tissue culture method.
It is possible to obtain 44 crore seedlings per year from a piece of chrysanthemum through tissue culture. Through this technology, perfumes are being produced from Jasmine suspension in different countries. A type of sperm whale oil is needed for running heavy engines like airplanes, rockets, etc. These whales are becoming extinct. Only jojoba oil can be used as an alternative, but this tree does not grow except in a special desert environment (eg Arizona, California) and their reproduction is very time-consuming.
This plant has not only been propagated through tissue culture but has also been adapted to the climate of India. Many successes have already been achieved through tissue culture in Bangladesh, such as the production of seedlings of a variety of native and exotic orchids. Disease-resistant and more productive banana seedlings, bell seedlings, and jackfruit seedlings have been produced. Seedlings of flowering plants such as chrysanthemum, gladiolus, lily, carnation, etc. have been produced. Various pulses, nuts, and jute seedlings have been produced. It has been possible to produce disease-free potato seedlings and seed microtubes using tissue culture.
12. What is the Role of tissue culture in agriculture?
Tissue culture is a branch of biotechnology. This branch of biotechnology plays an important role in agriculture. For example, many seedlings with the same characteristics can be produced from plant parts in a short time through this technology. Agriculturally important plant seedlings can be produced throughout the year through tissue culture. Enough seedlings can be produced in a short time in a small area.
Plants that do not propagate by seed can be propagated by tissue culture. Through this method, almost extinct plants can be produced and preserved. Disease-free seedlings, especially virus-free seedlings, can be produced by tissue culture.
From the above short discussion, it can be understood that through this modern technology i.e. tissue culture, it is possible to solve many problems in the agricultural sector and provide disease-free seedlings as per the demand of farmers. One thing is that the importance of tissue culture in agriculture is immense.
[su_heading size=”20″]FAQ about Hydroponic Farming[/su_heading]
How does hydroponic farming work?
Hydroponic farming is a method of growing plants using nutrient-rich water instead of soil. The plants are grown in a controlled environment, typically in a greenhouse or indoor facility, using a variety of hydroponic systems. These systems can include nutrient film technique (NFT), aeroponics, deep water culture, and more.
In a nutrient film technique system, for example, plants are grown in a shallow stream of nutrient-rich water that is constantly circulated over their roots. The plants are held in place using a growth medium, such as coconut coir or perlite, which helps anchor the plants but does not provide nutrients.
Aeroponics systems involve growing plants in an air or mist environment without the use of a growth medium. The plants’ roots are suspended in the air and are periodically misted with a nutrient-rich solution.
Deep water culture systems involve suspending the plants’ roots in a nutrient-rich water solution with an air stone that provides oxygen to the roots.
Overall, hydroponic farming allows for greater control over the growing environment and the nutrients provided to the plants, leading to higher crop yields and faster growth compared to traditional soil-based farming methods.
2 . Can hydroponic systems are set up indoors?
Yes, hydroponic systems can be set up indoors. In fact, many people choose to grow plants hydroponically indoors because it allows them to have more control over the growing environment. Indoor hydroponic systems can be set up in a variety of spaces, including basements, garages, and spare rooms. They can also be set up in greenhouses, which are essentially indoor environments that are designed specifically for growing plants. To set up a hydroponic system indoors, you will need to choose a location that gets enough light and has good air circulation. You will also need to consider factors such as temperature, humidity, and nutrient delivery when designing your system.
3 . What Cannot be grown in hydroponics?
While most plants can be grown hydroponically, some plants may be more difficult to grow using this method. For example, plants that have a deep taproot, such as carrots or beets, may be more difficult to grow hydroponically because they need a lot of space to grow their roots. Additionally, some plants, such as trees and shrubs, may be too large to grow in a hydroponic system. However, with the proper setup and care, it is possible to grow a wide range of plants hydroponically, including lettuce, tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers, herbs, and many others.
4 . What are the risks of hydroponics?
There are a few potential risks associated with hydroponic systems:
Water quality: It is important to use clean, pH-balanced water in your hydroponic system to ensure that your plants are getting the nutrients they need. If the water quality is poor, it can lead to nutrient deficiencies or toxicities, which can affect the health and growth of your plants.
Pest and disease management: Because hydroponic systems rely on recirculating water, pests and diseases can spread easily from plant to plant. It is important to regularly inspect your plants for signs of pests or disease and take steps to control them as needed.
Electrical safety: Hydroponic systems often rely on pumps, fans, and other electrical equipment, which can pose a risk of electrical shock or fire if not used properly. It is important to follow proper safety guidelines when setting up and using electrical equipment in your hydroponic system.
Cost: Hydroponic systems can be expensive to set up and maintain, especially if you are using advanced equipment or growing a large number of plants.
Nutrient management: It is important to carefully monitor and adjust the nutrient levels in your hydroponic system to ensure that your plants are getting the nutrients they need. If the nutrient levels are too high or too low, it can affect the health and growth of your plants.
Overall, it is important to carefully plan and maintain your hydroponic system to minimize the risks and maximize the benefits of growing plants hydroponically.
5 . How long do hydroponic plants last?
The lifespan of a hydroponically grown plant will depend on a variety of factors, including the type of plant, the quality of care it receives, and the overall health of the plant. Some plants, such as annuals, only live for one growing season, while others, such as perennials, can live for several years. In general, well-cared-for hydroponic plants should be able to thrive and produce fruit or flowers for as long as they would if they were grown in soil. However, it is important to regularly monitor and care for your plants to ensure that they are getting the nutrients and support they need to grow and thrive. This may include adjusting the nutrient levels in the water, pruning the plants, and controlling pests and diseases.