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Different types of soil erosion.

A Guide to Types of Soil Erosion: Causes and Prevention

Soil erosion is a severe environmental problem that affects millions of people around the world. It occurs when natural or human factors, such as water, wind, or farming, remove the top layer of soil. Soil erosion can reduce soil fertility, lower crop yields, increase flooding, landslides, water pollution, and biodiversity loss.

In this blog post, we will explore the different types of soil erosion, their causes, and how to prevent it.

This post will also teach you about soil erosion and how it affects agriculture and the environment. We’ll show you examples of soil erosion problems worldwide.

By the end of this post, you’ll understand why soil erosion is important and what you can do to help.


Types of Soil Erosion

Soil erosion can be broadly classified as water erosion and wind erosion, which affect both natural and cultivated lands.

Water Erosion

Water erosion occurs when water moves over the soil surface. It can happen because of rainfall, runoff, snowmelt, irrigation, or drainage. Water erosion varies based on water flow, land slope, shape, and soil characteristics.

Here are some of the main types of water erosion are:

Sheet Erosion:

Diffuse water flow removes a thin layer of soil uniformly from a large area. Sheet erosion can be hard to detect because it does not leave visible signs on the surface. However, it can reduce soil quality and productivity over time.

Sheet erosion occurs when water flows over a uniform slope and removes the top layer of soil.

Sheet erosion

Rill Erosion:

Concentrated water flow forms small channels or rills on the soil surface. Rill erosion can remove large amounts of soil in a short time and can lead to gully erosion if not controlled.

Rill erosion occurs when runoff water concentrates in small channels, or rills, that cut into the soil surface.

Rill erosion

Gully Erosion:

This occurs when rills become larger and deeper because of continuous water flow. Gully erosion can create huge scars on the landscape that are difficult to restore. Gully erosion can also affect roads, bridges, buildings, and other infrastructure.

water flow concentrates into large channels, or gullies, that cut into the soil surface.

Gully Erosion

Sheet Erosion:

Diffuse water flow uniformly removes a thin layer of soil from a large area. Sheet erosion can be hard to detect because it does not leave visible signs on the surface. However, it can reduce soil quality and productivity over time.

Mass Movement:

When gravity and water detach and transport large masses of soil downhill, then this occurs. Mass movement can take various forms, such as landslides, mudflows, slumps, or creep. Mass movement can cause severe damage to life and property.

when water erodes the banks of a stream or river, resulting in soil loss and habitat destruction.


Wind Erosion

The movement of air over the soil surface causes wind erosion. When the wind speed exceeds the threshold that can detach and transport soil particles, wind erosion can occur.

Factors such as soil moisture, texture, structure, organic matter, vegetation cover, and topography can also influence wind erosion.

Some of the main types of wind erosion are:

  • The wind lifts soil particles and bounces them along the surface, causing saltation. Wind erosion most commonly causes soil loss through this process.
  • The wind lifts fine soil particles and carries them in the air for long distances, causing suspension. This can result in dust storms that impact visibility, health, and climate.
  • The wind or saltating particles roll or push larger soil particles along the surface, causing surface creep. This can lead to further detachment and abrasion of soil particles.


Causes of Soil Erosion

Soil erosion is a natural process that has been occurring for millions of years. However, human activities have accelerated and intensified soil erosion in many parts of the world.

Some of the main causes of soil erosion are:

Natural Factors

  • Climate: The weather is a big factor in soil erosion. Things like how hard and often it rains, temperature, wind strength, and direction, humidity, and evaporation can impact how much soil is carried away by water or wind.
  • Topography: Topography is about the shape and height of the land. Factors like how steep it is, the length of slopes, which way they face, how bumpy the land is, and the pattern of water flow can affect how water and wind move across the land and how much soil gets washed away.
  • Soil type: Soil type refers to the physical and chemical properties of the soil. Aspects such as texture, structure, how easily water can pass through, organic material content, acidity, saltiness, and fertility can all influence how soil particles detach and are carried away by water or wind.
  • Vegetation cover: Vegetation cover relates to the amount and types of plants on the land. Having plants can shield the soil from the direct impact of rain and wind, reduce runoff and evaporation, improve water retention, stabilize the soil, increase organic matter, and provide habitat for wildlife.

Human Activity:

Human activity refers to the various ways that people use and manage the land. It can affect soil erosion positively or negatively depending on the practices adopted. Some of the human activities that can increase soil erosion are:

  • Deforestation: This is the removal of trees and other vegetation from the land for various purposes such as agriculture, logging, mining, urbanization, or fuel. Deforestation can expose the soil to water and wind erosion, reduce soil organic matter and fertility, alter hydrological cycles, and increase greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Overgrazing: This is the excessive consumption of vegetation by livestock or wildlife. Overgrazing can reduce vegetation cover, damage soil structure, compact soil, increase runoff and erosion, and degrade pasture quality and productivity.
  • Poor agricultural practices: These are the practices that do not conserve or improve soil health and productivity. Some of the poor agricultural practices that can increase soil erosion are:
  • Monocropping: This is the cultivation of the same crop on the same land year after year. Monocropping can reduce soil biodiversity, increase pest and disease incidence, deplete soil nutrients, and increase soil erosion.
  • Excessive tillage: This is the repeated plowing or digging of the soil to prepare it for planting or weed control. Excessive tillage can break down soil aggregates, destroy soil organic matter, disturb soil biota, increase soil compaction and crusting, and make soil more susceptible to water and wind erosion.
  • Inadequate fertilization: This is the application of insufficient or inappropriate amounts or types of fertilizers to the soil. Inadequate fertilization can reduce soil fertility, crop yields, and quality, and increase soil acidity, salinity, and erosion.
  • Improper irrigation: This is the application of too much or too little water to the crops or at the wrong time or place. Improper irrigation can cause waterlogging, salinization, leaching, nutrient loss, runoff, and erosion.

 Prevention of Soil Erosion

Soil erosion is a preventable problem that can be addressed by adopting sustainable land management practices.

Some of the main practices that can prevent or reduce soil erosion are:

  • Conservation tillage: This is a method of preparing the soil for planting that minimizes disturbance and maintains a protective layer of crop residues on the surface. Conservation tillage can reduce runoff and erosion, improve soil structure and organic matter, conserve soil moisture, and suppress weeds.
  • Cover cropping: This is a method of growing crops between or after the main crops to cover and protect the soil. Cover crops can reduce runoff and erosion, improve soil fertility and organic matter, fix atmospheric nitrogen, suppress weeds, and provide fodder for livestock.
  • Contour farming: This is a method of planting crops along the contour lines of the slope rather than up and down. Contour farming can reduce runoff and erosion, slow down water flow, increase infiltration, and conserve soil moisture.
  • Terraces: These are structures that create level platforms on steep slopes to prevent runoff and erosion. Terraces can be constructed using stones, earth, or vegetation. Terraces can reduce runoff and erosion, increase the land area for cultivation, improve water management, and enhance landscape aesthetics.
  • Windbreaks: These are rows of trees or shrubs planted perpendicular to the prevailing wind direction to reduce wind speed and erosion. Windbreaks can also provide shade, habitat for wildlife, wood products, and carbon sequestration.
  • Reforestation: This is the restoration of forest cover on degraded lands by planting native trees or allowing natural regeneration. Reforestation can reduce runoff and erosion, improve soil quality and biodiversity, regulate climate, and provide various ecosystem services.


Case Studies

Soil erosion is a problem that affects regions worldwide in different ways. Here are some examples of how soil erosion has impacted agriculture and the environment in various parts of the world.

  1. The Dust Bowl: This was a period of severe dust storms that affected parts of North America in the 1930s. The Dust Bowl was caused by a combination of drought, overgrazing, overplowing, and poor land management practices that left millions of acres of land vulnerable to wind erosion. The Dust Bowl resulted in massive crop failures, economic losses, health problems, migration, and social unrest.
  2. The Loess Plateau: This is an area of about 640,000 square kilometers in China that was once covered by fertile loess (wind-deposited silt) soils. The Loess Plateau has suffered from severe water erosion for thousands of years due to deforestation, overgrazing, overcultivation, population pressure, and poverty. The Loess Plateau has lost about one-third of its original soil depth, resulting in reduced agricultural productivity, food insecurity, poverty, and environmental degradation.
  3. Jakarta, Indonesia: This megacity experienced deadly floods in early 2020, partly due to soil erosion upstream. Sediments from eroded lands clogged the rivers and canals that drain the city, causing them to overflow. Soil erosion also reduces the water quality and increases the risk of landslides.


The impact of soil erosion on agriculture and the environment

Soil erosion has negative effects on both agriculture and the environment. Some of these effects are:

It has negative effects on both agriculture and the environment. Some of these effects are:

  • Reduced soil fertility: Soil erosion removes the topsoil, which is rich in organic matter and nutrients that are essential for crop growth. This leads to lower crop yields and quality and an increased need for fertilizers and pesticides.
  • Loss of biodiversity: Soil erosion reduces the habitat and food sources for many plants and animals, especially those that depend on soil organisms. This can result in the decline or extinction of some species, as well as reduced ecosystem services such as pollination and pest control.
  • Increased greenhouse gas emissions: Soil erosion reduces the carbon storage capacity of soils, which can release more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Soil erosion also contributes to deforestation, land degradation, and desertification, increasing greenhouse gas emissions and climate change.



Preventing soil erosion ensures food security, environmental health, and human well-being. By conserving soil resources, we can improve crop production, enhance ecosystem services, mitigate climate change, and reduce disaster risks. Preventing soil erosion can also save money and resources that we would otherwise spend on restoring degraded lands.



1. What is soil erosion?

Soil erosion is when wind or water moves the top layer of soil. It happens naturally. This process is a form of soil degradation that has a negative impact on soil quality and productivity.

Soil erosion can reduce crop yields, damage infrastructure, and affect the ecology of the surrounding area. It is, therefore, a matter of concern for farmers, land managers, and policymakers alike.

2. What are the different types of soil erosion?

Water erosion of soil has four main types: splash, sheet, rill, and gully. Splash erosion happens when raindrops hit the soil and disperse soil particles. Surface runoff removes a thin layer of soil, causing sheet erosion. Rill erosion occurs when runoff forms small channels on the slope.

Gully erosion occurs when runoff forms large, deep channels that are difficult to repair. The wind blows away fine soil particles, especially in dry or semi-arid regions, causing wind erosion.

3. What are the causes of soil erosion?

Soil erosion happens naturally from rain, streams, and wind, and also from human activities like farming, mining, and logging. These activities disturb natural vegetation and expose soil to erosion.

Soil erosion can cause environmental and economic damage, including loss of fertile topsoil, reduced soil productivity, and increased sedimentation in waterways. Preventive measures include sustainable land-use practices, erosion control structures, vegetation cover, and ecosystem restoration.

4. What are the effects of soil erosion?

Soil erosion has significant on-site and off-site impacts, including reduced agricultural productivity, ecological collapse, soil fertility loss, and damage to infrastructure. Releasing carbon stored in the soil. Addressing soil erosion promptly and efficiently is crucial to mitigate its effects and safeguard the planet’s well-being.

5. How can soil erosion be prevented?

To prevent soil erosion, you can take several actions. Ways to help the environment: plant trees, use organic matter, avoid tilling soil, build check dams, rotate crops, and fix damaged lands. These practices protect the soil from erosive forces and enhance its resilience, thus promoting sustainable agriculture and soil health.


I am Gaushoul Agam

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I am an experienced Horticulture Officer in the Department of Agricultural Extension in Bangladesh. I am committed to improving agriculture and farming.

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