Crops grow in between rows of trees in a silvoarable system.

Silvoarable Systems: A Sustainable Agroforestry


Silvoarable systems are sustainable agroforestry techniques that grow food and trees simultaneously. In silvoarable systems, yearly revenue is generated while the long-term tree crop grows by growing agricultural or horticultural crops alongside it. Silvoarable systems have a long history, going back to the Middle Ages when European farmers used to raise their crops in the shade of trees. Due to its many advantages, there has been a resurgence in interest in scalable systems in recent years. Silvoarable systems are acknowledged for their ability to enhance soil quality, promote biodiversity, and provide economic benefits to farmers. The goal of this page is to provide readers with a thorough knowledge of silvoarable systems, including their background, advantages, and drawbacks.

Related post: Different Types of Sustainable Agroforestry Systems

History of Silvoarable Systems

Silvoarable methods have been used for ages throughout Europe. European farmers grew their crops under the shade of trees throughout the Middle Ages. This kind of cropping was called “alley cropping” or “intercropping.” The crops received shade from the trees, which decreased water evaporation and increased soil moisture. The harvests in turn gave the farmers a means of support.

During the 20th century, monoculture farming generally took the role of sliver-variety systems. But because of its many advantages, there has recently been a resurgence of interest in scalable systems.

The Advantages of Silvoarable Systems

Improvement of Soil Quality

The improvement of soil quality by silvoarable systems is well acknowledged. Trees contribute to a reduction in soil erosion by holding the soil in place with their roots. Tree branches and leaves can aid in reducing soil erosion by capturing rainwater. Tree roots assist in improving soil structure by loosening compacted soil.


A variety of animals can find a home in silvoarable environments. Birds may build their nests in the trees, while other creatures like insects and other animals can eat the crops. This promotes a healthy ecology and increases biodiversity.

Silvoarable systems integrate pastures to promote a healthy ecosystem and increase biodiversity.


Economic Advantages

Silvoarable systems can assist farmers financially. Trees can serve various purposes, including fuelwood, lumber, and other products. Additionally, crops grown within agroforestry systems can be utilized as animal feed or sold for human consumption. Through ecotourism, silvoarable systems may also give farmers a means of support.

What are the challenges of implementing silvoarable systems?

Due to farmers’ lack of knowledge and technical skills, the adoption of silvoarable systems might be difficult. Farmers may also have difficulties with the initial investment needed to set up sustainable systems, as well as with the long-term administration and upkeep of these systems. The farmer’s goals and the local conditions will determine which silvoarable system is best. The compatibility of various tree and crop species, as well as possible rivalry for resources like water and nutrients, may provide problems for farmers.

Policy and regulatory frameworks, as well as market demand for the goods generated by these systems, can also have an impact on the adoption of scalable systems. Both silvoarable and silvopastoral systems should be encouraged as “legal” types of land use, according to policies for agriculture and forestry funding. Despite these difficulties, sustained agricultural and rural development depends on these systems since they offer a variety of ecosystem services and can enhance farmers’ livelihoods1,2,3,4,5.

Types of Silvoarable Systems

Based on geography, silvoarable systems in Europe may be classified into two groups:

  1. Northern Europe, 2. Mediterranean

Not only do silvoarable systems exist in the Mediterranean region, but also silvopastoral systems. High seasonal fluctuation in rainfall is a characteristic of Mediterranean soil systems in southern France. Different parts of Europe, notably the Mediterranean area of Spain, western Europe (France), and northern Europe, have been used as models for silvoarable agroforestry systems. The Mediterranean region has the dehesa ecosystem, a silvopastoral system that covers more than 3.5 million hectares in the southwest of the area. The dehesa environment, which is utilized for cork production and cattle grazing, is characterized by a mixture of trees, shrubs, and grasses1,2,3,4,5.

Farmer Perceptions of Silvoarable Systems in Europe

Silvoarable agroforestry has the potential to contribute to sustainable agriculture and rural development in Europe. Many traditional silvoarable systems existed in the past in Europe, and research projects have demonstrated that novel temperate agroforestry systems can operate with modern technology while preserving some of the environmental benefits associated with traditional systems.

The SAFE project explored how trees could be maintained or re-introduced in the agricultural systems of Europe. The project found that 90 million hectares are potentially suitable for silvoarable agroforestry and 65 million hectares would benefit from silvoarable plantations to contribute to the mitigation of some key environmental problems such as soil erosion or nitrate leaching. The adoption of silvoarable systems can be influenced by policy and regulatory frameworks, as well as market demand for the products produced by these systems. Modeling studies have shown that silvoarable systems can provide a range of environmental benefits, such as a reduction in nitrogen leaching or an increase in carbon sequestration1,2,3,4,5.

Enhancing Agroforestry Systems through Tree Domestication

The process of bringing a species into widespread cultivation through farmer- or market-driven processes is known as tree domestication. The domestication of trees is essential in agroforestry systems as it aligns the variation of regionally significant trees with the demands of farmers and markets. This process begins with selecting which species to domesticate, followed by socioeconomic research, germplasm collection, genetic selection, and improvement, before integrating the domesticated species into land use.

Genetic diversity, market value, and other factors all influence the domestication of trees. Domestication of Australian tree species for agroforestry, domestication of tree species for wood and non-timber forest products, and participatory domestication of agroforestry trees are a few examples of tree domestication in agroforestry systems1,2,3,4,5.

Policies for Ecosystem Services Enhancement

Enhancing ecosystem services in agroforestry systems requires policies. Through the supply of food, fuel, and other items, agroforestry-based ecosystem services can offer possibilities for improving lives. According to farmers, agroforestry improves ecosystem services by reducing soil erosion and runoff, boosting soil fertility, and supplying animal habitats. The promotion of agroforestry practices through subsidies, tax incentives, and technical support are a few examples of strategies for boosting ecosystem services in agroforestry systems.

The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) of the European Union (EU) supports agroforestry techniques that improve ecosystem services. Additionally, the CAP supports the creation of agroforestry systems that protect biodiversity and sequester carbon for the benefit of the environment. The creation of certification programs that acknowledge the environmental advantages of agroforestry systems is another way to advance agroforestry practices.1,2,3,4,5.

Methods in Agroforestry Research

Understanding the integration and interaction of trees, crops, and/or animals in agroforestry systems requires research. The science of agroforestry investigates and directs how to incorporate trees into agriculture and animal systems. Research may be used to pinpoint agroforestry system knowledge gaps and future research directions.

Agroforestry systems are traditional resource management practices that provide ecosystem services and can improve lives. Researchers use techniques like field experiments, modeling, and participatory research to study the effects of agroforestry on agricultural systems and the environment. Field tests assess the impact of different agroforestry techniques on yields, soil fertility, and ecosystem services. Modeling, on the other hand, allows researchers to project how various agroforestry techniques could affect the environment and ecosystem services.

Participatory research can also be used to involve local communities in the research process and to ensure that their needs and concerns are taken into account. Working with farmers to create and evaluate agroforestry techniques that suit their requirements and preferences is a key component of participatory research1,2,3,4,5.


Silvoarable systems are crucial for rural development and sustainable agriculture since they offer several advantages including enhanced biodiversity, higher soil fertility, and less soil erosion. However, to eliminate uncertainties and fully comprehend the advantages, limitations, and prospects of these systems, their implementation requires backing from national governments as well as more studies.

Frequently Ask Questions FAQs

1. What is Silvoarable?

Silvoarable is an agroforestry system in which agricultural or horticultural crops are cultivated alongside a long-term tree crop. This approach allows for annual income from the crops while the tree crop matures over time.

2. What are the benefits of Silvoarable?

Silvoarable systems are beneficial for biodiversity conservation and can provide environmental, economic, and social benefits through complementary interactions between the system components.

3. What types of crops can be grown in Silvoarable systems?

Any arable or horticultural crop is possible, including overwintering crops. It is important to control weeds, and black plastic mulches are used for best tree establishment and growth.

4. What types of trees are used in Silvoarable systems?

Agroforestry systems can include deciduous and coniferous trees, with timber crop trees planted in single or double rows. Another option is to plant trees in a triple-row configuration, with coniferous nurse trees situated between high-value timber crop trees. This arrangement helps to train the straight growth of the crop trees and allows for later pruning.

5. Where is Silvoarable most commonly used?

Silvoarable systems are extensively used in Europe, especially in northern Europe and the Mediterranean regions. These areas have larger areas dedicated to silvoarable agriculture and produce a greater variety of commercial trees and crop species, resulting in a wider range of available silvoarable systems.


I am Gaushoul Agam

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I am an experienced Horticulture Officer in the Department of Agricultural Extension in Bangladesh. I am committed to improving agriculture and farming.

I created ToAgriculture to address global food safety concerns. These concerns are caused by a growing population, diminishing farmland, and the impact of climate change on agriculture. I assist readers in learning modern farming techniques.

I also help them control pests and diseases. Additionally, I guide managing agriculture sustainably. All of this is aimed at creating a better and more successful future in farming.

I have experience in field crops and horticulture crops. I know about fruit and vegetable farming, managing pests and diseases, irrigation, and grafting. Come with me as I share my knowledge and experiences to help you create a better future.

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