Farm yard Manure

How To Make Farm Yard Manure? An Easy Guidelines

Farm yard manure (FYM) has been used for centuries as a natural fertilizer to improve the productivity of agricultural lands. It is made up of organic materials, such as animal excreta, bedding straw, and other organic matter, that are collected from farm animals such as cows, horses, and chickens. The use of FYM dates back to ancient civilizations, including the Romans, who recognized the benefits of using animal manure to enrich the soil.

Over the centuries, FYM has played a vital role in sustainable agriculture, as it helps to restore nutrients to the soil, improve soil structure and water-holding capacity, and reduce the need for synthetic fertilizers. In addition, the use of FYM can help to reduce the environmental impact of animal farming, by reducing the amount of waste produced and preventing the release of harmful gases into the atmosphere.

Today, FYM continues to be an important resource for farmers around the world, as it helps to increase crop yields, reduce the need for costly synthetic fertilizers, and improve the overall health and productivity of agricultural lands.

What is Farmyard Manure?

Farmyard manure is prepared by composting organic wastes such as crop waste, cowshed waste, household waste, kitchen scraps, poultry droppings, etc.

Ingredients:

Cow dung, household garbage, cow urine, poultry droppings, kitchen scraps, crop residues, leaves, and small branches, That is to say, all kinds of organic waste from a house or farm can be used as farm yard manure.

Why is Important?

    • Increases productivity by increasing the amount of organic matter in the soil.
    • Improves all physical properties of soil like water holding capacity, aeration capacity, soil color, soil texture, etc.
    • Increases the activity of soil microorganisms. Fertilizes the soil by increasing the nutrient content of the soil.
    • Saves chemical fertilizers.
    • Increases effectiveness of chemical fertilizers.
    • Helping to create a comfortable environment by cleaning the garbage of the sitting house.

Method of Preparation of Farm Yard Manure:

Making pits and making sheds:

farm yard manure Making pits

Image: Farmyard Making Pit.

  • A place should be selected at a high place next to the residential house for making farmyard manure.

  • At the selected place, 2 pits of 3.30 m length and 1.15 m width should be dug 1 m deep in such a way that the area of ​​each pit is 1.50 m x 1.50 x 1.00 m and between the two pits 30 cm. A wide earthen wall (the walls of the pit should be cut slope, so that soil does not break away from the sides of the pit and fill the pit).

  • 30 cm high earthen aisle should be provided around the pit so that rainwater cannot enter inside the pit.

  • After that, a hut should be made over the hole with bamboo nets and hut-making materials or tin in such a way that sun or rainwater cannot enter.

How to Make Farm Yard Manure?

    • A pit should be filled with dung, household garbage, cow dung, poultry droppings, kitchen scraps, crop residues, tree leaves, twigs, etc. whatever is available at home.

    • When the hole is full, the top fresh litter should be turned over and covered with a layer of wet soil.

    • A handful of urea fertilizer should be sprinkled in the garbage before covering it with soil to speed up the decomposition process, it is better to have cow urine in the pit.

    • The second hole should then be filled with rubbish and covered with soil as before.

    • The litter in the first pit will turn into compost within one to one and a half months (the time may be slightly more/less depending on the material).

    • In this way, in 3-4 months two pits will produce cyclic farmyard manure.

    • First, after the preparation of manure in the pit is completed, it should be removed and used on the land or covered with polythene at a convenient place and left for use at the time of need.

    • Re-pouring of rubbish in the empty pit should be started.

    • In this way, farm fertilizer will be prepared in two continuous pits throughout the year.

The selection and initial preparation of the place for the production of farm yard manure:

    • A place should be selected near the residential house, on the edge of the field, next to a pond or pond, where there is no possibility of water accumulation.

    • Care should be taken to ensure that manure or root material is not wasted by rolling away from the lower part of the site.

    • It is best to lay the shed on pits/piles, if not possible, piles can be made under trees.

    • 3 m length 1.25 m wide and 1.15 m high piles should be made above the ground, the length of the pile can be reduced/extended according to convenience.

    • Building compost piles with the specified amount of fencing can facilitate the work.

Method of Stacking:

    • First, litter and other garbage are thrown 15 cm. Make a thick layer (Fresh or green leaves should not be composted, as potash and nitrogen content may be lost, leaves should be slightly dried before layering.

    • Leaves and other materials should be cut into long pieces and layered.

    • After sprinkling 200 g of urea and 200 g of TSP fertilizer over the layer, the surface of the layer should be covered with dung and silt/loam soil 2.5-5 cm thick, which speeds up the decomposition process.

    • 15 cm in the same way until it is 1.25 meters high. Make a thick layer with urea and TSP and cover it with dung and soil.

    • If it is not possible to press on the pile, then when the pile is made, the surface of the pile should be covered with soil, so that during heavy rains, rainwater cannot enter inside and it does not dry out in the sun.

How To Check The Farm Yard Compost Manure Pile?

    • About a week after making the compost pile, insert a stiff stick into the center of the pile to see if the pile is excessively wet.

    • If excessively wet, make occasional holes in the top of the pile with a stiff stick, to allow air to enter the pile.

    • After 2-3 days the holes should be closed with soil.

    • If the pile is too dry, if water or cow’s urine is poured occasionally on the top of the pile, there is less fear of the pile drying up.

    • If an adequate quantity of cow urine and urea fertilizers are used, the compost is usable in the land in about 3 months, and if they are used less and the soil/materials are of relatively hard type, it may take another month more time in the compost pile.

    • If the arable/material turns gray or black on rotting and crumbles when pressed with fingers, it is considered fit for use in the field.

 

Read More: 

    1. How Does Green Manure Help Maintain Soil Fertility? Good Agricultural

2. Practices in Vegetable and Fruit Production

3. Dragon Fruit Farming Method in Tubs on The Rooftop Garden

4. The Fight Against Climate Change: Rural Women’s Participation.

5. Why Do Hydroponic Farming?

 

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