Mangosteen Guttiferac family is a tropical fruit, whose scientific name is Garcinia mangostana. It is a very tasty fruit that is very popular in the European and Western markets. It is native to the Sunda Islands and Malacca. Currently, this fruit is being cultivated commercially in Southeast Asia, Thailand, Burma, Malaysia, the Philippines, Malaya, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka.
Mangosteen is a very slow-growing tree. A tree with a pyramid-like canopy. The trees grow up to 30 – 40 feet tall. However, 82 feet tall trees are also seen, mainly evergreen trees with small stems and opposite leaves.
Uses of Mangosteen:
Usually: Ripe fruits are eaten. However, it can also be processed and consumed as syrup, candy, jam, frozen, etc. This fruit is sometimes called the queen of fruits. Because it contains xanthones which prevent it from drying out. It has anti-allergic properties. Filipinos use their leaves and bark to reduce body temperature. Besides, it plays a beneficial role in solving diarrhea, dysentery, and urinary tract problems. Its bark (rind) contains 7-15% tannin which is used to dye leather and yarn, soap, shampoo, and conditioner.
What are The Benefits of Mangosteen Fruit?
The nutritional content of 100 grams of Mangosteen Fruit:
|Serial No.||Name of Nutritions||Quantity Unite||Serial No.||Name of Nutritions||Quantity Unite|
|Pantothenic Acid (B5)|
Source: Southern Mindanao Integrated Agricultural Research Center (SMIARC), 2004.
What Are The Suitable Soil?
Slightly acidic, fertile, and well-drained silt loam soils rich in organic matter are suitable for Mangosteen cultivation. It does not do well in sandy, sandy loam-alkaline soils. But a 5.5 – 6.8 PH level is more suitable for it.
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Suitable Climate For Mangosteen Cultivation:
Mangosteen grows well in areas with 1200 mm or more of rainfall throughout the year and 1 month of drought. 15-30 days of drought is very suitable for flowering. These trees are 80% moisture and 25-35°C. Likes temperature. It grows well at altitudes up to 500 meters. If it is more, the production capacity decreases.
Mangosteen seeds are apomictic (seeds produced from unpollinated embryos/somatic cells). Hence, the seedlings produced from these seeds carry the qualities of the mother plant. Propagation is usually from seed or asexual grafting. However, two types of Mangosteen have been reported. One bears fruit every year, and the other bears fruit every year. The first is sweet in taste and the other is slightly sour in taste. The fruit of the first is almost spherical. The second is a slightly elongated fruit.
What Are The Sapling Production Techniques of Mangosteen?
Mangosteen seedlings can be produced from seeds by following the steps below.
- Seeds should be collected from fully ripe fruits. Seeds weighing more than 1 gram should be selected.
- Seeds should be sown immediately after collection.
- The seedbed should be prepared by mixing well-drained well-drained sand and soil (3:1).
- Seeds should be sown 2-3 cm apart at a depth of 5-10 mm. Seedlings grow after about 30 days.
- When the seedling is planted in the seedling, the seedling should be bagged in a mixture of sand and soil prepared in a ratio of 3:1.
- Irrigation should be continued as needed in nursery polybags.
- After 24-36 months the seedlings will be suitable for planting in the field.
Cleft grafting is most commonly used. Scions from selected mother plants are mated to healthy stock. 30-35 cm. Tall seedlings which are 2 years old are used as rootstock.
Steps of Cleft Grafting of Mangosteen:
- 2-year-old seedlings grown from seed are suitable as rootstock.
- A long V-shaped cut is made by cutting the tip.
- 6-12 cm Longitudinal sion V-shaped in longitudinal cut, It should be neatly tied with ribbons.
- Then the scion and rootstock should be well tied with ribbons and covered with polythene.
- Sion in stock within 7-10 days if the surrounding conditions are good The pair will stick.
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How to Planting Mangosteen in The Field?
- The land has to be prepared one to two months before. Soil rich in organic matter is best.
- Plant the seedlings between hills at a distance of 8-10 meters will be Planted in 3.5×3.5×3.5 Feet.
- Planting is best at the beginning of the rain. However, if irrigation is available, its seedlings can be planted at any time of the year.
- Since it grows very slowly, weeding should be done regularly. It is best to use coconut husk and other mulches to conserve moisture during the dry season.
Mangosteen trees continue to grow physically for 12-20 years. But with good management, it gives fruit in 5-7 years. By controlling the C: N ratio by using MOP fertilizer for fruiting, fruiting can be achieved in 5-7 years.
No pruning is required until fruiting. But more than 8 years old trees that have narrow branches should be trimmed.
- Application of fertilizers:
Nitrogen fertilizers are applied for faster growth. Liquid fertilizers can be applied to the soil or to the leaves along the canopy. It is best to apply 50-100 kg of rotted dung and 5-7 kg of groundnut husk per plant per year along with chemical fertilizers.
Irrigation Management For Mangosteen Garden:
Irrigation is necessary during the dry season. A lot of water is needed due to less root hair. After a month-long drought/ drought, heavy rains help the mangosteen plant to flower twice. The fruit needs a lot of irrigation to grow. Low irrigation disrupts fruit growth, resulting in a smaller size. Planting near pond banks, lakes, springs, and streams If this fruit tree gives good yield.
What Are The Physiological Problems of Mangosteen?
Gummosis can occur in Mangosteen. Sticky substances can cause yellow spots on the fruit. In addition, bright sunlight can cause spots on the fruit. A careful cultivation in a clean environment can get rid of it. Mangosteen is also affected by various diseases and insects.
Collection period of Mangosteen:
The fruit ripens in the months of May-July in trees planted at a lower altitude than the sea level. Fruit ripens in July and August at lower temperatures in hilly areas planted at higher altitudes. The fruit is available twice in India. First: July to October, Second: April to June. Fruit ripens in Puerto Rico from July to August in full-sun areas and from November to December in shade-grown trees.
The fruit should be harvested when the skin of the fruit is reddish-pink and there is no stone on the skin of the fruit. Usually: The fruit ripens 113-119 days after flowering. If the color changes from green to reddish pink, then the fruit is ripe.
What are The Collection Methods For Mangosteen fruit?
Not all fruits ripen at the same time. When the fruit ripens, the fruit should be harvested on the second or third day with a break according to the market demand. To ensure that the fruit does not fall on the ground and is not injured, the fruit should be plucked with a netted bamboo stick early in the morning or in the afternoon.
Post-Collection Management of Mangosteen:
Consciously collect the fruit and take it to the packing house. Sorting, cleaning, grading, etc. work should be done before packing. Then arrange them in crates or baskets according to size.
Fruits can be marketed in three categories based on shape. For example,
- Big 8-10 fruits/kg
- Medium: 12-14 fruits/kg
- Small: 16-18 fruits/kg
How Does Storage of Mangosteen fruit?
- Generally, mangosteen fruit can be stored indoors for 8 weeks at a temperature of 8-10°C and humidity of 85-90%.
- Can be kept for 20-25 days in normal dry and closed stores. If kept like this for a long time, the skin becomes hard and does not tear easily. Then it becomes difficult to open the skin/skin.
- It can be stored in room 4.44º-12.78°C temperature for 3-4 weeks.
- 3.89°-5.56°C temperature in cold storage at 85-90% humidity Mangosteen can be stored for up to 49 days in the room.
- It is better to keep the fruits wrapped in tissue paper in a wooden box.
How Long For Mangosteen To Bear Fruit?
With good care, it bears fruit in 5-7 years after planting. Yield may vary by season and by the plant. Usually bears fruit in succession. But there are varieties that bear fruit every year. Can bear fruit for up to 100 years, but trees reach maturity in 30-45 years and can produce up to 3,000 fruits per tree. Age-wise, the average number of fruits is mentioned…
|Serial No||Age of Mangosteen Tree (Year)||Number of Fruits Per Year (Average)|
|1||5 Years||10-12 Pitch|
|2||6 Years||30-60 Pitch|
|3||7 Years||70-90 Pitch|
|4||8 Years||100-150 Pitch|
|5||9 Years||200-300 Pitch|
|6||11-14 Years||400-900 Pitch|
|7||Above 15 Years||1000-1500 Pitch|
And fruits are more nutritious and delicious than food. Fruits are rich in vitamins and minerals which are essential for healthy living. As the fruit is eaten directly without any processing, its nutritional value remains intact.
- ANABESA, MIGUELA C.1992. Maturity Indices in Mangosteen, The Philippine Journal of Plant Industry, pp 1-10.
- ATI-FTC.1997. Mangosteen Production Guide, Bolomala, Tupi, South Cotabato.
- DIS Techno Guide Series, 2003 Mangosteen Production.
- SMIARC Techno Guide 2004, Mangosteen Production.
- MORTON, J. 1987. Mangosteen. P. 301-304. In: Fruits of warm Climate. Julia F. Morton. Miami FL www.Lot purdue.edu/new/cop/morton/mangsteen.html
- OSMAN, MOHAMAD Bin and ABD RAHMAN MILAN, 2006. Mangosteen (Garcinia Mangostana L.) . Southampton Center for Underutilized Crops. University of Southampton, Southampton UK.