In this post, we will explore Plant disease definition and the importance of this critical subject in the field of agriculture and horticulture. Plant diseases are caused by a wide range of pathogens including bacteria, fungi, viruses, and nematodes. These diseases can have devastating effects on crop yields and the overall health of plants. Understanding plant diseases and how to prevent, diagnose, and manage them is crucial for maintaining food security and protecting the environment. From the latest research on plant disease control to practical tips for managing plant diseases in your own garden, we will cover everything you need to know about this important subject. Join us as we delve into the world of plant disease and learn how to keep your plants healthy and productive.
What is Plant Disease?
Humans, directly and indirectly, depend on plants for food, clothing, shelter, medicine, etc. at every moment of life. But like humans and other organisms, plants are also affected by various diseases, due to which humans face huge financial losses. Trees due to disease. As many plants are destroyed due to dying, so the various products produced from diseased plants also suffer a lot. As a result, people suffer overall. For these reasons, people have to try to suppress plant diseases. The branch of botany that deals with various aspects of plant diseases is called Plant Pathology.
First, we need to know what we mean by plant disease. Plants grow healthy and naturally in balance with the surrounding conditions, but when that balance is disturbed, disease occurs. Plants require special amounts of nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, iron, zinc, boron, molybdenum, water, warmth, etc. from nature to grow normally. Plants cannot adapt to the new environment due to changes in nutrient levels or the presence of harmful microbes. As a result, the physiological functions in the plant cannot be carried out properly, the signs of abnormality appear in the plant body and the plant does not feel healthy anymore. In such a condition, the tree is considered to be diseased. Diseased plants show a variety of symptoms.
What is The Importance of Plant Disease?
We are directly and indirectly dependent on plants. Loss of production due to plant diseases causes financial loss, and sometimes food loss. like Diseases also affect agricultural systems, agricultural planning, the economy, and food habits. Below are some examples of the damage caused by anger.
- In nineteenth-century Ireland, ale was the staple food of its inhabitants. In the middle of that century, successive attacks of leitblight caused severe damage to potatoes, and in 1845 the potato yield was reduced to such an extent that there was a famine. As a result, about 20 lakh people died and another 10 people left for life in various countries of Europe including America.
- In the then Bangladesh in 1941-42 AD, the brown spot disease of rice was prominent, the yield of rice was reduced by 40-90% and in 1943 AD, a famine occurred. Brown spot disease is said to be largely responsible for the famine, along with several other factors. Due to this famine, many people died and millions of people were without food. Goes to Calcutta and other cities in search.
- In the mid-nineteenth century, Sri Lanka was growing coffee in abundance, and exporting it to England made a lot of money. But in 1870 AD, rust disease appeared in coffee and within 8-10 years the disease spread rapidly in different places. As a result, the coffee chain is severely damaged. Because of this, the Sri Lankan coffee industry was destroyed and the farmers of that country started to grow tea and rubber instead of coffee.
- In some areas of South and Central America, Australia, and the West Indian Islands, Panama, Sigatoka and Bunchitop diseases of banana plants spread to such an extent that the people of those countries were forced to stop banana cultivation.
- About 10,000 turkeys were reported to have died in England in the 1960s. An investigation into the cause revealed that the groundnuts used to feed the turkeys were infected with the fungus Aspergillus flavus. Taki dies due to the poison produced by the fungus called aflatoxin in groundnut.
- A toxic alkaloid is produced from the sclerotium produced by the Claviceps purpurea fungus on the rye grain. People and cattle are affected by ‘ergotism’ by eating the infected seeds. Later it was discovered that various fungi produced toxic substances in many grains. These substances are called ‘mycotoxins’.
- Many industries have been affected due to plant diseases. Red rot disease of sugarcane and root rot disease of beet reduce their yield to such an extent that sugar. Manufacturing plants suffer due to a shortage of raw materials.
- In many parts of the north-central part of the United States, beet crops were so affected by root rot that many sugar mills there were closed. Oil-producing industries have suffered in many places due to the development of aflatoxin-like toxins that cause diseases in groundnuts. In America, chestnut trees used to be planted along the highways to increase their beauty, but due to blight disease, the trees were destroyed in such a way that the factories making resin produced from them suffered terribly.
- Plants maintain the balance of the environment. So when the trees die due to disease, the natural environment is destroyed and many times people feel discomfort due to the lack of special trees in the environment.
- Plant diseases do not always harm humans, many diseases also benefit us. In many places, attempts are made to destroy the weed by causing disease. For example, infection by fungi such as Macrophomina, Cercospora, etc. is used to control the growth of the weed Striga Lucia. The color variation seen in tulip petals is due to virus disease. This tulip is sold at a high price in the European market. A number of alkaloids are prepared from the sclerotium produced in Claviceps purpurea rye grains and these alkaloids are used to treat abortion. In many countries, Claviceps fungus is cultivated artificially to induce this disease in rye crops in artificial beds for the production of this drug.
From the above few examples, it can be understood that apart from the reduction of crop production due to plant diseases, there is a great disaster in the agriculture of a country or a region and even in the national economy, which has a great impact on the social life and history of that place. throw away Because of this, scientists from different countries are gathering knowledge about plant diseases to control plant diseases and as a result, a separate branch called plant pathology has emerged like other branches of botany.
Plant diseases are a major concern in agriculture and horticulture, as they can cause significant financial and food losses. Plant pathology is the branch of botany that deals with various aspects of plant diseases. Plant diseases are caused by a wide range of pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, and nematodes, and can have devastating effects on crop yields and the overall health of plants. Understanding plant diseases and how to prevent, diagnose, and manage them is crucial for maintaining food security and protecting the environment. This post has explored the definition, causes, and importance of plant disease, as well as provided tips on how to manage them in the garden or farm.